Atom trap trace analysis of krypton in xenon for the XENON Dark Matter Project

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Groundwater dating with atom trap trace analysis of 39ar

Lu, P. Schlosser , W. Smethie, N. Sturchio, T. Fischer, B.

F. Ritterbusch et al., Groundwater dating with atom trap trace analysis of 39ar, Geophys. Res. Lett. 41

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Groundwater dating with Atom Trap Trace Analysis of 39Ar

The United States government has rights in the invention described herein pursuant to Contract No. The invention relates to methods and systems for detecting selected isotopes of all noble gases. Krypton permeates through the atmosphere at a concentration of about one part per million. Upon the discovery of 81 Kr in the atmosphere, it has been proposed that 81 Kr is an ideal tracer isotope for dating water and ice in the age range of 10 5 6 years, a range beyond the reach of 14 C-dating.

Due to its long residence time, 81 Kr is expected to be distributed uniformly throughout the atmosphere. Subsurface sources and sinks for 81 Kr other than radioactive decay are most likely negligible.

We report on the realization of Atom Trap Trace Analysis for 39 Ar and its first application to dating of groundwater samples. The presented system achieves an​.

Methods for using argon to age-date groundwater using ultra-low-background proportional counting. Argon can be used as a tracer for age-dating glaciers, oceans, and more recently, groundwater. With a half-life of years, 39Ar fills an intermediate age range gap , years not currently covered by other common groundwater tracers. Therefore, adding this tracer to the data suite for groundwater studies provides an important tool for improving our understanding of groundwater systems.

We present the methods employed for arriving at an age-date for a given sample of argon degassed from groundwater. Degradation of sucralose in groundwater and implications for age dating contaminated groundwater. The artificial sweetener sucralose has been in use in Canada and the US since about and in the EU since , and is now ubiquitous in sanitary wastewater in many parts of the world.

It persists during sewage treatment and in surface water environments and as such, has been suggested as a powerful tracer of wastewater.

Groundwater Dating With Atom Trap Trace Analysis Of 39ar

Jump to navigation. Other standards are used for other isotopes. To make these differences more apparent, the ratio is multiplied by Stable isotopes are those isotopes that do not undergo radioactive decay.

for dating very old groundwater (Lehmann et al., ), whereas 85Kr, which has For routine measurements in isotope hydrology, about 1 5 to 20 39Ar results For 81Kr measurements recently the Atomic Trap Trace Analysis ATTA (Chen.

With a half-life of years, carbon- 14 is well suited for radioisotope dating of fossils and other archeological finds. On the other end of the time spectrum, tritium half-life of There are, however, many geological changes that occur on a timescale of 10 — years. Argon- 39 , which is produced in the atmosphere by cosmic rays and has a half-life of years, would seem an ideal isotope to fill this niche. Writing in Physical Review Letters , a team of scientists working at Argonne National Laboratory, US, reports they have reached an isotopic sensitivity of 10 – 16 for argon- 39 using a specialized magneto-optical atom trap that allows them to detect single atoms.

In their setup, the team laser-cools and traps argon atoms with a laser tuned to the vicinity of an argon- 39 atomic resonance. Since it takes many cycles of absorption to trap the atoms, there is a nearly complete rejection of the other isotopes from the trap and only the remaining argon- 39 atoms are detected.

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Groundwater dating with atom trap trace analysis of 39ar Groundwater in applying atom trap trace analysis of lavalife dating service Thomas reichel, atom trap trace analysis atta is an ultra- sensitive. The source, 21ne, and help determine the field using the north atlantic. Few radionuclides have developed an emphasis on the groundwater discharge regulates crustal degassing. It was first dating, radioactive isotope hydrology it was used in.

Here we show successful 39Ar dating with 5 L of water based on the atom-optical technique Atom Trap Trace Analysis. Our data , the first explicit demonstration for dating groundwater samples was achieved in

We use advanced technologies to measure and trace the histories of water systems. We partner across scientific disciplines and institutions. Characterising groundwater flow on time scales that date back a million years requires new technology for detecting noble gas isotopes. The complexity of natural groundwater systems and the limitations of many traditional environmental tracers calls for the use of a new suite of ‘ideal’ tracers: the noble gases.

These are the most reliable tracers to investigate groundwater history, quantify recharge processes and determine the degree of aquifer interconnectivity. Two families of noble gas tracers exist: stable and radioactive. Enlarge image Vials of gases taken from water samples, ready for analyses. Vials of gases taken from water samples, ready for analyses.

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The resulting set of parameters consists of the hyperfine constants of the levels involved and the isotopic shift between 39Ar and 40Ar. Atom Trap, Krypton, and Saharan Water. Although this tracer has been acknowledged for decades, studies so far have been limited by the low abundance and radioactivity, thus requiring huge sample sizes. Recent developments of analytical and data interpretation methods now provide fresh perspectives for noble gases in oceanography.

With the relatively new atom trap trace analysis (ATTA) method (Du et al. 15 tons of water to less than 2 tons of water, similar to that for 39Ar (Loosli and Purtschert ). 5A 36Cl 36Cl can be used for groundwater dating in two ways.

The noble gases occupy Group 0 column 18 of the periodic table, comprised of the following elements: helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon not discussed here. They are colorless, odorless, monatomic, and unreactive gases at standard temperature and pressure. Helium : The spectral signature of helium was first observed from the Sun by Janssen and Lockyer in , with Lockyer credited for proposing this as a new element.

Helium was first isolated and identified in clevite, a uranium-rich mineral, by both Cleve and Langlet and independently by Ramsay in Helium is used in many cryogenic applications, most notably as a liquid in the cooling of superconducting magnets used in medical MRI scanners, but is also used for pressurizing and gas purging in many industrial applications, controlled atmospheres, specialist welding, leak detection, and breathing mixtures.

In , total global proven reserves and probable resources were estimated to be Neon : Discovered in air by Ramsay and Travers in , the main source of commercial neon today is through cryogenic fractional distillation of liquid air.

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Recent advances in Atom Trap Trace Analysis ATTA , a laser-based atom counting method, have enabled routine measurements of the radiokrypton isotopes, as well as the demonstration of the ability to measure 39Ar in environmental samples. Here we provide an overview of the ATTA technique, and a survey of recent progress made in several laboratories worldwide. We review the application of noble gas radionuclides in the geosciences and discuss how ATTA can help advance these fields, specifically: determination of groundwater residence times using 81Kr, 85Kr, and 39Ar; dating old glacial ice using 81Kr; and an 39Ar survey of the main water masses of the oceans, to study circulation pathways and estimate mean residence times.

Other scientific questions involving a deeper circulation of fluids in the Earth’s crust and mantle are also within the scope of future applications. We conclude that the geoscience community would greatly benefit from an ATTA facility dedicated to this field, with instrumentation for routine measurements, as well as for research on further development of ATTA methods. Skip to main content.

With a half-life of years, 39Ar fills an intermediate age range gap (, years) not The recent advent of atom trap trace analyses (ATTA) has enabled.

The first sample for Argon measurements using the new ATTA method, collected at a depth of 4, metres. The sample was obtained during a pilot study in the tropical North Atlantic off the Cape Verde Islands. The age of the water in the world’s oceans is critical for understanding ocean circulation, especially for the transport of gases from the atmosphere into the deep ocean.

Researchers from Heidelberg University recently used an atomic physics technique they developed to determine the age of deep ocean water ranging from 50 to 1, years. This new dating method, which measures individual argon atoms, was used in a pilot study in the North Atlantic. The circulation of the world’s oceans is of great importance for life in the ocean as well as for the global climate system. For future climate prognoses, it is important to understand not only how deep water is supplied with fresh oxygen but also how quickly and in what quantities the oceans absorb human-generated CO 2 greenhouse gas from the air.

To do that requires knowing the age of the deep water. How long does it take for water from the surface to reach a specific location in the ocean’s interior? For periods of up to around 50 years, there are multiple dating methods. But for older water — and hence most of the ocean — there has been no optimal dating method until now, the Heidelberg researchers emphasise.

The rare radioactive isotope 39 Ar of the noble gas argon Ar is used for dating.

Noble Gases

Atom Trap Trace Analysis ATTA is a laser-based atom-counting method capable of analyzing environmental isotope tracers 85 Kr, 39 Ar, and 81 Kr, each covering a distinct age range around the respective half-life Table 1. Combined with 14 C, the tracers can be used to probe events in the age range from a few years all the way to 1.

The noble-gas tracers have ideal geophysical and geochemical properties that simplify data interpretation; they have well determined, near uniform distributions in the atmosphere, and relatively simple transport processes underground. These isotopes are now being used to trace ocean circulation, date glacier ice, and trace groundwater pathways and help determine the recharge rates of aquifers around the world. Table 1. Long-lived noble-gas isotopes in the environment Isotope Half-life year Effective age range year Atmospheric isotopic abundance Primary Production mechanism 85 Kr

Recent advances in Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA), a laser-based atom of groundwater residence times using 81Kr, 85Kr, and 39Ar; dating old glacial ice.

Ok, so I took some license with the title. In fact, Krypton 81Kr is a radioisotope of the noble gas krypton and ATTA, which stands for atom trap trace analysis, is the revolutionary technique that has made its analysis possible. Figure 1. Used with permission. This 81Kr then settles to the earth surface and is incorporated into groundwater recharge and can then used to date groundwater from thousand to 1.

In order to use this method we assume that the initial concentration in the recharge is in equilibrium with the concentration of 81Kr in the atmosphere, which is well mixed. ATTA then measures the amount of 81Kr that is left in the water sample compared to the other Kr isotopes and an age can be calculated from the difference between this ratio and the intial ratio.

Figure 2. Dating ranges of 85Kr, 39Ar, 81Kr and other established radioisotope tracers. The reason krypton is such a useful tracer for groundwater dating is that as a noble gas the interaction of Kr with soils, rocks and the biosphere is minimal whereas other tracers such as 36Cl, 14C or 3H are often subject to retardation during transport or inputs from multiple sources which makes extensive corrections necessary or renders them completely unusable for dating.

Measurements of krypton can also be used for dating of ancient ice cores as well. Atmospheric gases including Kr are trapped in air bubbles in the ice and therefore, using the same method as groundwater dating, an absolute age for an ice core can be obtained. There are several other applications for Kr dating as well such as dating of deep crustal fluids and brines.

Measuring Individual Argon Atoms Helps In Understanding Ocean Ventilation

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Groundwater dating with Atom Trap Trace Analysis of 39Ar. Geophysical Research Letters, 41(19), pp. American Geophysical.

Axel was involved in: Sediment dating using gamma spectrometry of Pb, Pb, Bi, Cs; Radiocarbon dating using gas proportional counters for 14C; Isotope hydrology using tritium and including electrolytic isotope enrichment as well as stable isotope 18O, 2H mass spectrometry. His projects in Hannover included: Geochronology of sediments, anthropogenic impact on geochemical records, palaeoclimate studies, marine geology, bioturbation studies. Groundwater “dating“, recharge, groundwater mixing, saline groundwater, nitrate and pesticide contamination studies in groundwater, multi-tracer applications in groundwater.

At the isotope hydrology laboratory of IAEA he built and managed a new and fully automated noble gas system measuring all noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe in groundwater. He also developed the software control of the complete measurement process of noble gases. Also here he introduced state of the art data management and laboratory management procedures into the isotope hydrology laboratory. He developed post-processing algorithms for noble gases, radiometry gas proportional counters, liquid scintillation counters and electrolytic enrichment of tritium.